Ungayikhetha njani imaski ye-coronavirus?

Ngaba uyazi ukuba loluphi uhlobo lweemaski omele uzithengele i-coronavirus
Iimaski zonyango, iimaski zokunyanga abagulayo, iimaski zokuhlinzwa, imaski yokhuselo kwezonyango, i-N95, KN95, 3M, njl. Ngokuphathelele amagama eemaski, abantu badaniswa kwaye badideka.
Iindidi zeemaski eziqhelekileyo zingahlulahlulwa zaba ngamahlelo ama-6 ngokuhambelana nomgangatho wokusetyenziswa
Iimaski zokuhlinzwa zonyango, iimaski ezikhuselayo zonyango, i-N95, FFP2 inokusetyenziselwa ukukhusela amaziko ezonyango, i-KN95 ayinakusetyenziselwa amaziko ezonyango, kodwa abantu abaqhelekileyo banokukhetha.
Ungazikhetha njani iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zemaski? Namhlanje, ndiza kubazisa kuwe, ndikuvumele ukhethe ngokukhawuleza imaski ekufaneleyo.

Iimaski zedolo / iimaski zokhathalelo lonyango
Iimaski zonyango kunye neemaski zonyango ziyimigangatho yesizwe, i-YY0969, kwaye ngokuyintloko ziyilelwe kwaye zenziwe ngamashishini. Ubume bayo ikakhulu lilaphu elingelolukiweyo kunye nephepha lokucoca.
Ezi masks azinakuqinisekisa ukungcungcutheka kwezinto ezincinci zentsholongwane kunye nothuli, azinakufikelela ekucoceni kokusebenza kwamasuntswana kunye neebhaktheriya, kwaye azinakukhusela ngokufanelekileyo ukuhlasela kweentsholongwane ngokusebenzisa indlela yokuphefumla.
Olu hlobo lweemaski lunqunyelwe kwinqanaba elithile lokuthintelwa koomatshini kumasuntswana othuli okanye iirosol. Ihlala isetyenziselwa ukhathalelo oluqhelekileyo kwizibhedlele, kwaye umphumo wokuzikhusela awonelisi kakhulu.

Iimaski zonyango lokuhlinzwa
Iimaski zokuhlinzwa kufuneka ziveliswe ngokuhambelana nomgangatho wempilo weYY0469-2011. Ukuba imigangatho yeshishini esekwe lishishini iyahlangabezana okanye idlula iimfuno zeYY0469, inokuprintwa kwiphakheji yangaphandle yemaski.
Imaski yokuhlinzwa yahlulahlulwe yangamaqela amathathu: ungqengqelo-lokufunxa lwamanzi lwangaphakathi, umaleko wokucoca ophakathi, kunye nomaleko wamanzi ongaphandle. Impembelelo yayo yokucoca kumacuntswana angenamafutha kufuneka ingaphezulu kwe-30%, kwaye impahla yayo yokucoca kwiibacteria kufuneka ibe ngaphezulu kwe-95 (non-N95).
Ilungele ukhuseleko olusisiseko lwabasebenzi bezonyango okanye abasebenzi abanxulumene nalo, inokuthintela ukusasazeka kwegazi, ulwelo lomzimba kunye ne-splashes, kwaye inemisebenzi ethile yokhuselo lokuphefumla. Iimaski zokuhlinzwa zonyango zinokuthintela uninzi lwentsholongwane kunye neentsholongwane kunye nokunciphisa umngcipheko wokosuleleka ezibhedlele.
Isetyenziselwa ubukhulu becala kwiindawo ezifuneka kakhulu kwezonyango ezinje ngeeklinikhi zonyango, iilabhoratri kunye namagumbi okusebenza, ezinento yokwenza nokhuseleko oluphezulu kunye nokuxhathisa okunamandla kwiibacteria kunye neentsholongwane. Isetyenziselwa ikakhulu ukunqanda ukwanda komkhuhlane kunye nezifo zokuphefumla.

I-3.KN imaski
Iimaski ze-KN zisetyenziswa ikakhulu ukukhusela amasuntswana angenamafutha. Ngokweemfuno ze-GB2626 standard, ukugcwaliswa kwamasuntswana angeyiyo ioyile yahlulwe. Phakathi kwazo, i-KN90 ingaphezulu kwe-90% yemicimbi engeyiyo ioyile engaphezulu kwe-0.075 microns, i-KN95 ingaphezulu kwe-95% yemicimbi engeyiyo i-oyile engaphezulu kwe-0.075 microns, kwaye i-KN100 ingaphezulu kwe-99.97% yemicimbi engeyiyo ioyile engaphezulu kwe-0.075. iintsholongwane.
Iimfuno zemaski yohlobo lwe-KN kwizixhobo zokucoca kukuba izixhobo ezinxibelelana ngqo nobuso azinabungozi kulusu kwaye isixhobo sokuhlunga asiyingozi emzimbeni womntu. Izixhobo ezisetyenzisiweyo mazibe namandla awoneleyo kwaye akufuneki zikhubazeke okanye zonakaliswe ngexesha lobomi obuqhelekileyo benkonzo.
Uluhlu olufanayo lweemaski njenge-KN, kunye noluhlu lwe-KP, yintoni i-KP?
I-KN yeyamasuntswana angenamafutha, kwaye i-KP yindawo yokugcina izilwanyana. I-KP90 / 95/100 iyafana ne-KN90 / 95/100 kwi-KN.
Iimaski ze-KN kunye ne-KP zilungele ikakhulu ukungcola okunamafutha kunye nezinto ezingekhoyo ioyile ezinjengothuli, umsi, inkungu kunye nokunye okuveliswa ngentsimbi yokucoca isinyithi, isinyithi, isinyithi kunye neentsimbi, ukubamba, iikhemikhali eziphilayo, irhasi, ukwakhiwa kunye nokuhonjiswa . (Qaphela: ikwabizwa ngokuba yimaski yothuli)

4.Imasical ezikhuselayo
Imilinganiselo yokhuseleko yase China yase-GB19083-2010. Akukho ngxelo yeN95 kule nqanaba, kodwa ukuhlelwa kwinqanaba 1, 2, no-3 kusetyenziswa ukubonisa inqanaba lokucoca kakuhle.
Inqanaba loku-1 linokuhlangabezana neemfuno ze-N95. Ngamanye amagama, logama nje nayiphi na imaski yokhuselo yezonyango ehlangabezana nomgangatho we-GB19083, ngokuqinisekileyo iya kufikelela ekucoceni kokusebenza kwe-N95 kunye ne-KN95.
Umahluko phakathi kwemaski okhuselayo kwezonyango kunye ne-KN95 kukuba iimaski ezikhuselayo zonyango zikwakhona “ukungena kokwenziwa kwegazi” kunye “neemeko zomphezulu womphezulu wokuxhathisa”. Iziphumo zokukhuselwa kweemasks ezikhuselayo zonyango kwigazi, ulwelo lomzimba kunye nolunye ulwelo zacaciswa, kodwa ezi ntlobo ze-KN azifumaneki.
Ke ngoko, iimaski zohlobo lwe-KN ezihambelana ne-GB2626 azinakusetyenziselwa imisebenzi yezonyango, ngakumbi imisebenzi enomngcipheko ophezulu njenge-tracheotomy kunye ne-tracheal intubation enokuthi ibala.
Iimaski zokuhlinzwa kwizibhedlele kufuneka zonke zihlangabezane nenqanaba loku-1 nangaphezulu kwe-GB19083. Inokufikelela kwi-95% yeefilitha, kwaye inokuthintela ukungena kwamanzi.
Emva kokuthetha oku, abantu abaninzi bazakubuza, yintoni i-N95?
Iindidi ezininzi zeemaski eziziswe apha ngasentla, iimaski zonyango kunye neemaski zokwenza utyando zilandela imigangatho yonyango, iimaski ezikhuselayo zonyango kunye nemodeli ye-KN zilandela imigangatho yelizwe, kwaye i-N95 ilandela imigangatho ye-US.

Imaski eyi-5.N95
Imaski ye-N95 ilandela i-American NIOSH42CFR84-1995 standard (NIOSH iZiko leSizwe loKhuseleko eMsebenzini kunye neMpilo). I-N ibonisa ukungahambi kweoyile kwaye i-95 ibonisa ukubonakaliswa kwenani elithile leenxalenye zeemvavanyo ezikhethekileyo. Ukuxinana kwamasuntswana kwimaski kungaphezulu kwama-95% ngaphantsi kwenxalenye yamaqhekeza ngaphandle kwemaski. I-95 ayisiyo i-avareji, yona incinci.
Uluhlu lokucoca ulwelo ngamasuntswana angenayo ioyile, njengothuli, ukungalunganga kwe-asidi, izinto ezincinci, njl njl. Umgangatho wesicelo sayo kukukhuselwa kwezifo zokuphefumla ezinesifo esosulelayo ngabasebenzi bezonyango kunye nabasebenzi abanxulumene noko, kunye nokuthintela ukusasazeka kwegazi, ulwelo lomzimba kunye ne-splashes ngexesha lenkqubo.
I-NIOSH eqinisekiswe ngamanye amanqanaba okulwa ne-anti-genetic mask nayo ibandakanya: I-N95, N99, N100, R95, R99, R100, P95, P99, P100, iyonke iindidi ezili-9.
Qaphela: N-ayichaphazeleki ioyile, R-ayisebenzi ioyile, P-ayisebenzi ioyile.
Iimfuneko zobugcisa kunye neendlela zokuvavanya zala manqanaba mabini ee-mas95 zeemaskhi kunye neemaski ezingama-N95 ngokusisiseko ziyafana, kodwa zikwimigangatho eyahlukeneyo yesizwe.
I-N95 ilandela imigangatho yaseMelika, ngelixa i-FFP2 ilandela imigangatho yaseYurophu.

I-6.FFP2 imaski
Imaski ye-FFP2 yenye yemigangatho yemaski yaseYurophu EN149: 2001. Zisetyenziselwa ukwenza i-adsorb eyingozi i-aerosols, kubandakanya uthuli, umsi, amaconsi amdaka, igesi ezinobuthi kunye neempuphu ezinobuthi, ngokusebenzisa isixhobo sokucoca, ukubathintela ekuthini basebenzise abantu.
Phakathi kwabo, i-FFP1: Iziphumo ezisezantsi ezisezantsi zokucoca> 80%, FFP2: Iziphumo ezisezantsi zokucoca> 94%, FFP3: Iziphumo ezisezantsi zokucoca> 97%. Ukuba usebenzisa le datha ukukhetha imaski efanelekileyo kwesi sifo, ubuncinci yi-FFP2.
Izinto zokucoca imaski ye-FFP2 yahlulahlulwe yangamasuntswana amane, oko kukuthi, izangqa ezibini zelaphu elingalukwanga + ulwahlulo olunye lwendwangu yokutshiza yesixhobo somaleko + umqolo omnye wenaliti owotyiweyo.
Imaski yokukhusela ye-FFP2 inokuzikhusela kakhulu kwiintsholongwane kunye nakwiibacteria, ngokusebenza kococeko olungaphezulu kwama-94%, elungele indawo eshushu nenomswakama okanye ukhuseleko lwexesha elide.

Umbuzo wokugqibela, yintoni imaski eyi-3M?
"Imaski ezi-3M" zibhekisa kuzo zonke iimveliso ze-3M ezinokubizwa ngokuba ziimaski. Ziyakwazi ukwahlulahlulwa zibe zithathu iindidi: iimaski zonyango, iimaski ezikhuselayo, kunye neemasks ezishushu ezifudumeleyo. Uhlobo ngalunye lweemaski lujolise kukhuseleko oluhlukileyo.
Ii-3M zemaski zokukhusela zenziwa e China zangeniswa elizweni. Banazo iipropathi zokukhusela iimaski zokunyanga kunye ne-masks yokhuseleko. Zisetyenziswa ezibhedlele kwaye zinokucoca iingcambu emoyeni kwaye zithintele amathontsi, igazi, ulwelo lomzimba kunye nobisi.
Phakathi kweemaski ze-3M, ezokuqala nge-90, 93, 95, kunye ne-99 zisebenza ngokufanelekileyo iimaski zokukhusela nxamnye namasuntswana ayingozi. Zombini i-8210 kunye ne-8118s ziyahlangabezana neemfuno zokukhusela i-PM2.5 yase China. Ukuba ufuna ukukhetha ukudibana nomgangatho wokukhusela umkhuhlane kwi-World Health Organisation, khetha i-9010, 8210, 8110s, 8210v, 9322, 9332.

Ukubona oku, uyazi ukuba ungayikhetha njani imaski ngexesha lerubhu?
I-1, unokukhetha iimaski zonyango zokuhlinzwa, zama ukukhetha iimaski zokuhlinzwa.
I-2, inokukhetha imaski ngaphandle kokuphefumla i-valve, zama ukukhetha imaski ngaphandle kwevalve yokuphefumla.
World ukulwa! China ukulwa


Ixesha lokuposa: Jun-28-2020